Several societies for improved breeding of the cattle were founded. The societies aimed at improvement through standardizing the indigenous breed by selecting the best bulls, purebreeding for a single color and improvement of performance in work fitness and milk production. In 1897, the Breed Society for Yellow Franconia Cattle for Middle and Upper Franconia Cattle for Middle and Upper Franconia in Nurnberg was founded. It was followed by the Breed Society for Gelbvieh in Lower Franconia, based in Wurzburg and founded in 1899.
Since World War II, Germany used a stringent selection program to repopulate its cattle herds. Only three percent of the registered cows were used to produce potential bulls. These cows were selected on structural soundness and conformation.
The Highland breed has lived for centuries in the rugged remote Scottish Highlands. The extremely harsh conditions created a process of natural selection, where only the fittest and most adaptable animals survived to carry on the breed.
Originally there were two distinct classes: the slightly smaller and usually black Kyloe, whose primary domain was the islands off the west coast of northern Scotland; the other, a larger animal generally reddish in color, whose territory was the remote Highlands of Scotland.
Today both of these strains are regarded as one breed-the Highland. In addition to the red and black of the original strains, dun, brindle, silver and white are also considered traditional colors.
Pure beef cattle breeds exist and thrive only to the extent that they can produce profits for their owners, across many environments, many markets and changing times. Since the development of the commercial beef industry in the United States, many breeds have come and gone. Long-term profitability is rare in the US beef industry. Red Poll cattle have been profitable for their owners ever since first arriving in the United States in 1873. For over 137 years, Red Polls have been working and profiting on America's Family Farms.